1) Administrative Users : There is no support for recording last successful logon time for administrative logons i.e, logons as SYSOPER, SYSDBA or the newly added SoD (Separation Of Duty) administrative privileges, like SYSBACKUP, SYDG, SYSKM. So if a user DBAOPER has been granted administrative privileges, say SYSOPER and tries logging into to the system "AS SYSOPER" by using Password File/Operating System based authentication, his LSLT will not be updated in USER$ and hence not visible in DBA_USERS view. So while devising rules for locking inactive users, based on LAST_LOGIN field, you must consider excluding the administrative privileged users. Also note that V$PWFILE_USERS does not have any column for LSLT unlike DBA_USERS.
2) Externally Authenticated Users : They are supported. I tried Operating System based authentication by making use of OS_AUTHENT_PREFIX parameter and SSL based authentication making use of digital certificates and in both the instances, DBA_USER had their Last Successful Login Time recorded.
3) Proxy Authentication : When a proxy user logs in (connect proxy[client]/proxyPass), the connections gets established using credentials of proxy user, but the actual login happens as client user. In other words, once the login happens, the session behaves as if, it were established using client' credentials. So the natural question is whose LSLT gets updated post successful logon ?? Is it PROXY or CLIENT or BOTH ?? Ideally, for a successful proxy logon, LSLT for both proxy and client users should be updated, because both the users account status needs to be ACTIVE in order to establish a successful proxy connection.
However, As on 18.104.22.168, this holds true only for Double Session Proxy sessions (not supported in SQL*Plus, but supported in OCI and JDBC). For Single session proxy sessions (supported in SQL*Plus, OCI and JDBC), a successful proxy logon _does not_ update LSLT for the proxy user and only CLIENT user' LSLT gets updated (I plan to cover the various types of proxy authentications some day, hopefully soon enough for my readers)
So while sifting through DBA_USERS.LAST_LOGIN, you want to do some special handling for PROXY Only users, who may only connect to the system via PROXY authentication and may not connect directly leaving behind a stale LSLT in USER$.